The Fundamentals of Islamic Belief, List of Important Elements, By Maulana Syed Muhammad Yusuf Banuri

Translated By: Mufti Umar Anwar Badkhshani & Saad Khan

Anything which is proven by the Holy Qur’an or the Hadith Mutawatir (continuous) or by the consensus of the ummah (Ijam Ummah), and its definite indications, are all part of the Necessary Fundamental Belief of Islam. It means that as Fundamental beliefs their presence in Islam is clear and evident, and through scholars its knowledge has reached the common people. It does not mean that every common man should know it, because sometimes people do not know some of the basic beliefs of Islam due to lack of Religious education. But after learning and receiving the knowledge it is obligatory to believe in it. The scholars have made it clear that being unaware and unknowledgeable about some of the Shari’ah,s Mutawatir is not Disbelief, but once knowing it, if a person becomes a disbeliever it is due to his  stubbornness and denial.

(Sharah Jawahir ut Tawhid p:51, Hashiah Al-Muwafqat Shatbi Vol 3, p:256, Ikfarul Mulhidin p:2)

Denying the Fundamental belief of islam, or interpreting it against its purpose, has been described by scholars as major cause of disbelief. Imam al-Ghazali has written a dedicated book: التفرقة بين الاسلام والزندقة on this topic and presenting a decisive discussion concerning this issue. Imam-ul-Asr Muhaddith of the time Hazrat Ustad Maulana Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri has written an exceptional and comprehensive book on this subject named: اكفار الملحدين في ضروريات الدين

It should be noted that  the knowledge obtained from Mutawatir sources (uninterrupted /continuous sources) is unanimously accepted and acknowledged and thus it becomes necessary for one to have faith in them. If someone gets to know that a Hadith is Mutawatir or something is proven by mutawatir Ahadiths then it is necessary for a Muslim to believe in them. Whether these are related to the past or the unseen things of the future, or related to beliefs or rules of Shari’ah. All these are mandatory for the confirmation of the Prophethood. Otherwise Denying the Prophethood is without any doubt a disbelief. Being a part of the basic Fundamentals of islam this matter does not need any argument. The details of these rules can easily be found in the books of theology and principles of jurisprudence.

When stating the necessary fundamentals belief of islam, scholars of the ummah usually mention a few examples in their books. A misunderstanding that occurs in the minds of some readers is that they think the necessary fundamentals are limited to just these examples and there is nothing more. This is even though the intent of these scholars is to merely present a few examples, not to shorten, restrict or limit [the necessary fundamentals]. To remove this misunderstanding, we have compiled a list of some of the fundamentals of Islam in one place which can be obtained by cursory effort. From this concise list it will become self-evident that the purpose of the scholars was to show examples. The purpose was not to compile a complete list. The examples below can be found in the books of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), usul al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence), kalam (theology) and usul al-hadith (principles of hadith):

(1) Knowledge of Allah Almighty
(2) His ambient power (qudrah),
(3) His perfect will,
(4) His attribute of speech (kalam),
(5) The Qur’an,
(6) Qur’an is pre eternally existent,
(7) Attributes of Allah are pre eternal,
(8) Universe is originated (hadith),
(9) Resurrection of the physical body [not just the soul],
(10) Punishment of the grave,
(11) Reward and punishment in the hereafter,
(12) The beatific vision of Allah in the hereafter,
(13) The great intercession,
(14) Existence of the pool of Al-Kawthar,
(15) Existence of Angels,
(16) Existence of the two angels known as the honorable recorders (kiraman katibin),
(17) Finality of the Prophethood,
(18) Belief that Prophethood is gifted and not acquired,
(19) Prohibition of uttering obscenities against the Companions (muhajirin or ansar),
(20) Love for Ahl al-Bayt,
(21) Caliphate of Shaykhayn (Abu Bakr and ‘Umar),
(22) Obligation of the five salahs,
(23) Number of rak’ahs in salah,
(24) Number of prostrations in salah,
(25) Fasts of Ramadan,
(26) Zakah,
(27) Measurements used for calculating zakat,
(28) Hajj,
(29) The stay in Arafat [during Hajj],
(30) Number of circumambulations [of the Ka’ba] in tawaf,
(31) Jihad,
(32) Facing the Ka’bah in salah,
(33) Friday salah,
(34) Congregational salah,
(35) Adhan,
(36) The two ‘Ids,
(37) Permissibility of wiping over leather socks [in wudu],
(38) Prohibition of abusing any of the Prophets,
(40) Rejection of jism (body) for Allah,
(41) Rejection of divine indwelling (hulul),
(42) Prohibition of considering unmarriageable kin (mahrams) permissible (for marrage),
(43) Stoning (Rajm) of the adulterer,
(44) Prohibition of (wearing) Silk for men,
(45) Permissibility of buying and selling,
(46) Bathing after ritual impurity,
(47) Prohibition of marrying one’s mother,
(48) Prohibition of marrying one’s daughter,
(49) Prohibition of marrying one’s mahrams,
(50) Prohibition of alcohol and
(51) Prohibition of gambling.

At this time 51 examples have been presented and from this it must have occurred to the reader that some matters towards which one hardly pays attention are also part of the fundamentals of den-e-islam.

Now, at the end of this discussion we will present a statement of Muhaqqiq al-Hind Shah ‘Abdul Aziz al-Dahlawi. The entire statement can be found in “Ikfar al-Mulhidin” [of Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri]. The general rule regarding the fundamentals of den-e-Islam will become lucid after this [statement] insha’Allah …

Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al-Dahlawi said:

ضروريات الدين منحصرة عندهم في ثلاثة مدلول الكتاب بشرط ان يكون نصا صريحا لا يمكن تاويله كتحريم البنات والامهات, ومدلول السنة المتواترة لفظا أو معنى, سواء كان من الاعتقاديات أو من العمليات, وسواء كان فرضا أو نفلا ……. والمجمع عليه اجماعا قطعيا , كخلافة الصديق والفاروق و نحو ذلك , و لا شبهة أن من أنكر أمثال هذه الأمور لم يصح ايمانه بالكتاب و النبيين

 “Fundamentals of den-e-Islam are of three types:

(1) The first type is that which is proven from clear verses of the Qur’an such as the prohibition of marriage with one’s own mother or daughter.

(2) The second type is that which is proven from al-sunnah al-mutawatirah (mass-transmitted narrations) regardless if the mass-transmission was in letter or in spirit – in belief or in actions, in fara’id (obligatory acts) or in nawafil (supererogatory acts).

(3) The third type is that which is established with absolute consensus (ijma’ qat’i) such as the caliphates of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr al-Siddiq and Snyyiduna ‘Umar al-Faruq. There is no doubt that if one denies any of those three types then this person’s belief on the Qur’an and the Prophets is not correct.”

(Excerpt from: ‘Aqida Nuzul al-Masih, P: 20 – 26, By Maulana Syed Muhammad Yusuf Banuri)


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